legitimately excited that your birthday presents consist of 1. socks and 2. wine
In 1965, at Jackson, Mississippi, Matt Herron took an iconic and ironic image from the civil rights era as a white policeman rips an American flag away from a young black boy, having already confiscated his ‘No More Police Brutality’ sign. Herron remembers the events that surrounded that World Press Photo prize wining photos:
The picture was taken at the side entrance to the Governor’s mansion on Capital Street in Jackson in the summer of 1965. The boy is Anthony Quinn, aged 5. His mother, Mrs. Ailene Quinn of McComb, Mississippi and her children were trying to see Governor Paul Johnson; they wanted to protest aganist the election of five Congressmen from districts where blacks were not allowed to vote. Refused admittance, they sat on the steps. The policeman struggling with Anthony is Mississippi Highway Patrolman Hughie Kohler. As Kohler attempted to confiscate the flag, Mrs. Quinn said: ‘Anthony, don’t let that man take your flag.’ Kohler went berserk, yanking Anthony off his feet.
In the South during the civil rights movement, the American flag was a potent symbol of support for racial integration (and support for federal law). Southerners who believed in racial segregation displayed Confederate flags instead. People were pulled from their cars by policemen and beaten simply for displaying an American flag on their license plates. So the simple act of a small child carrying an American flag represented defiance of Mississippi law and custom.
Anthony and his mother were arrested and hauled off to jail, which was a cattle stockade at the county fairground, since the city jails were already full of protesters. The Quinn protest was organized by COFO (Council of Federated Organizations), an umbrella organization responsible for most civil rights activities in the state. Today Anthony lives in Florida. I believe he is a lawyer. His mother died recently, and when Patrolman Kohler died a number of years ago, his obituary in the Jackson Daily News referred to this photograph and mentioned how Kohler regretted that moment ‘for the rest of his life’.”
SOURCE: Iconic Photos / Famous, Infamous and Iconic Photos / Mississippi, Matt Herron http://iconicphotos.wordpress.com/2011/06/25/mississippi-matt-herron/
How microbes affect what you want to eat, explained by people smarter than we are!
Is Eating Behavior Manipulated by the Gastrointestinal Microbiota? Evolutionary Pressures and Potential Mechanisms
It would appear that the bacteria that lives within us may contribute to (control) our daily food intake and moods, that is, according to a new study published this week in the journal BioEssays.
Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their ﬁtness, sometimes at the expense of host ﬁtness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their ﬁtness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.
What I particularly find interesting is how the microbes influence the vagus nerve. They mention in the article that severing (or blocking) the vagus nerve in mice induced a considerable amount of weight lost, indicating that the microbes influence our predisposition to obesity to gain their desired nutrients.
In combination of that, the microbes also seem to possess the ability to create neurochemicals that are analogous with mammalian hormones that are involved with mood and behavior.More than 50% of the dopamine and the vast majority of the body’s serotonin have an intestinal source. Many transient and persistent inhabitants of the gut, including Escherichia coli, Bacilluscereus, B. mycoides, B. subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus have been shown to manufacture dopamine. Concentrations of dopamine in culture of these bacteria were reported to be 10–100 times higher than the typical concentration in human blood
The loss (or lack) of microbiota reduces the predisposition to obesity, hinting that a non diverse ecosystem of gut bacteria may be a factor in obesity.
For example, mice that lacked the toll-like receptor TLR5 became obese and developed altered gut microbiota, hyperphagia, insulin resistance, and pro-inflammatory gene expression.
Certain strains of probiotics on the other hand have been reported to reduce fat mass and improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, resulting in higher gut diversity. The reason a higher gut diversity is thought to lead to weight lost or the elimination of “food cravings” is due in large part to the increase competition and cooperation between the various species of bacteria, resulting in expenditure of their resources to manipulate their host.
Obviously there is more to all of this than what i have chosen to write here and so I highly recommend giving this research a read and I’d love to hear varying opinions!